The development and utilization of new techniques in genetic analysis, karyotype identification and chromosome manipulation, and the elucidation of homoeologous relationships in the Triticinae have greatly contributed to the present understanding of genetics and cytogenetics of rye.  Knowledge of rye genetics, for a long period behind other diploid crops, is progressing and become useful in marker-aided selection.

Based on compilation of available data of genetics in rye, wheat and triticale as well as wheat-rye addition and substitution lines, a comprehensive presentation of gene designation, localization and linkage relationships has been established. Since 1960 (Jain 1960), along with the updates in 1982, 1986, 1996, 1997 (Schlegel and Mettin, 1982; Schlegel et al., 1986; Schlegel and Melz, 1996; Schlegel and Korzun, 1997), recently there are about 1,700 biochemical, molecular, and morphological markers available in rye.  From this number about 80 % are molecular markers gathered during the last decade, 12 % biochemical markers, and about 8 % mapped morphological features, respectively.

Best investigated is chromosome 1R with about 350 mapped loci, followed by chromosome 6R (280), 5R (260), 2R (215), 4R (205), 7R (190), and 3R (160), respectively.

Meanwhile suitable markers exist for important resistance and fertility traits applied in hybrid breeding of rye (Dreyer et al., 1996). Even first QTLs were mapped on several rye chromosomes (Schlegel and Meinel, 1994, Börner et al., 2000).


On the following pages the localization of markers along the chromosomes and chromosomal regions are given. Since different authors published different results, often for the same marker, all available data have to be considered. Because of limited space in this paper the numerous authors, most of the mapping and linkage data, the gene order along the chromosomes and the varying data of localization and linkage are not included. They can be taken from Schlegel and Korzun (1997) and from the author’s web site, which is annually updated.